Maria Montessori
Pioneering Italian educator who taught that children learn best through "practical play," "spontaneous discipline," use of manipulatives, and natural exploration.

Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist and epistemologist who advocated a "child-centered" approach to learning, believing that education should "make creators, not conformists."

The Socratic Method
Stonemason, student, teacher, warrior, dissident "corruptor of youth," this noble man known secondhand as Socrates is the founder of western philosophy and pedagogy.

Mastery Learning (ML)
ML posits that any grade less than "A" requires remediation until mastery is achieved. Only after demonstrating mastery are students allowed to advance to the next level.


Brief overview covering educational history, theory, development, modalities, and psychology. Excellent “See Also” section provides links for further research.

Education in the United States
Comprehensive article examining in detail key aspects of public, private, and home school education in America. 227 footnotes; most are linked.

The Tutorial
Tutoring is a tried and true, well-tested educational tradition. A look at the tutorial system in use for centuries at Oxford, Cambridge, other great schools. See also: Tutorial System.


Institute of Educational Sciences
Research arm of the U.S. Department of Education. Includes the National Center for Educational Statistics and the National Center for Educational Research.

American Educational Research Association
Since 1916, AERA has striven to serve the public good and improve American education through research and scholarly inquiry into teaching and learning.

Educational research organization founded by Filmmaker George Lucas in 1991 to promote optimal educational outcomes for American students.